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Author Topic: The Search for Megalops – 2018 Report #6  (Read 836 times)
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« on: December 03, 2018, 12:03:01 PM »

The Search for Megalops – 2018 Report #6
The 2018 End of Season Comments
“You Don’t Need To Be A Scientist To Report”
View All Blue Crab Megalops Newsletters on The Blue Crab Forum (TM)
Northeast Crabbing Resources Thread
The Blue Crab Newsletter Series – The Sound School
New Haven, CT
Tim Visel

•   Season’s Comments
•   Season Closes With Slow Fishing and Low Catches
•   Habitat Refugia – Warm Water Pockets Have Shown the Best Catches
•   Megalops Set Reported on July 22, Most Likely the Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus
•   A Look Back at Tom’s Creek, Madison – The Colder Future?

I had planned to get the end of season report out before winter storms but on November 15th, I am writing the report while waiting for Route 95 to be cleared of the first snowfall in Branford, CT. Writing the season opener 210 days ago, it was snowing, and now writing the end report, a winter snowstorm.

It is unmistakable now, we are in a cooler water climate pattern.  The blue crab season was shortened by an incredible cool spring as ice jams occurred at the East Haddam Bridge over the Connecticut River that made national news media reports. All summer I watched the Labrador counter current strengthen as evidenced by moisture leaving Nova Scotia as rain to get about 40 miles offshore then turn to snow and then closer to the Gulf Stream turn back to rain. This is the Labrador Current, a cold water current that originates off the coast of Greenland and heads south along Newfoundland’s coast towards Nova Scotia. This is the cold current that carries codfish larvae into the Gulf of Maine. The transition in temperature can be sharp as it was this summer, watching the weather radar show blue (snow) offshore Nova Scotia in July. Rachel Carson in “The Sea Around Us” (1954) gives us a great description of how sharp this cold water current boundary can be in a negative “NAO”.  “In winter, the temperature change across the current boundary is so abrupt that as a ship crosses into the gulf stream, her bow may be momentarily in water 20o warmer that that of her stern, as though the “cold wall” were a solid barrier separating the two water masses.”

The barrier between the Labrador cold current and Gulf Stream warmth creates some of the densest fog banks in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is also important to put into perspective the climate period in which Rachel Carson wrote, the 1950s or a time of a negative North Atlantic Oscillation, and research of Hurd Willet’s polar vortex, who was at MIT looking at a pattern of the circumpolar winds guided and directed by the climate feature of the Icelantic low and Azores high pressure systems. And the NAO seems to be  this climate cycle that guides the blue crab population in Long Island Sound. A negative NAO allows cold air from Canada to sag far to the south and energize coastal lows, the Nor'easter's along New England. The 1950s and 1960s were the times of the negative NAO’s with more snow and much more energy. This was not the case in the 1990s, which evidenced mild winters, little snow, dry periods and lower numbers of strong storms. The 1980 and 2010 period witnessed two strong hurricanes, Hurricane Gloria 1985 and Hurricane Bob 1991 and the strong Nor’easters, including “The Perfect Storm.” The 1955 hurricane season had two strong hurricanes in August that hit Connecticut only 8 days apart, Hurricane Connie and Hurricane Diane.

The population of blue crabs appears to follows the NAO, a period of hot summers and mild winters that have little snow (mild) favors the blue crab.  A period in which the blue crab has done well before in Long Island Sound was the Great Heat, 1880 to 1920. It reached its lowest points in the stormy and snow-filled 1950s and 1960s a time of the negative NAO.

It is evident that habitat compression is continuing and habitat refugia (those last spots that are warmer) hold the most remaining large blue crabs.

On the last day of the blue crab season, I learned that a major publication would be released by NOAA, naming the NAO as having a large role in the abundance of New England shellfish populations. It is an excellent paper and points to many of the research areas found in the IMEP Habitat History posts also on the Blue Crab ForumTM Eeling, Oystering and Fishing thread.

The paper by Mitchell Tarnowski and Clyde MacKenzie, Jr. is long overdue.  It is titled “Large Shifts in Commercial Landings of Estuarine and Bay Bivalve Mollusks in Northeastern United States After 1980 With Assessment of the Causes” and found on the NOAA Northeast Fisheries Center website at NOAA Fisheries News, October 25, 2018 from Shelley Dawicki at [email protected].  Any bluecrabber or inshore fisher would find this report of interest – my view, Tim Visel.

Finally, I went to thank all those crabbers who shared catch and size information with me this past season.  All observations are important as we follow blue crab populations in Long Island Sound.

Season Closes With Slow Fishing and Low Catches

Many times this blue crab season formerly productive blue crab spots were observed to be empty of both blue crabs and crabbers. The tides were favorable, the weather good and water temperatures very warm, not hot, and no crabbers were in view. When crabbers were present, a frequent statement was “It's not like a few years ago” - it just wasn’t.  Most crabbers in open/shore locations were around one crab per line (or trap) each hour. Many were less. The highest catch I observed this season was 17 crabs for a 10-hour trip, less than two crabs per hour.  The deep holes in rivers, perhaps warmer, did hold dense pockets of crabs.  If you fished them this year, chances are you did much better.

This season was also dominated by extremely hard shell crabs - "rusty" or yellow face crabs were often observed in crab pails. White belly crabs were rare and often seen in more saline waters, such as the Indian River in Clinton, Connecticut. We are in a mostly negative NAO pattern and blue crabs are a good indicator of how climate patterns and NAO influence blue crab populations; most crabs observed are now largely adults. Yellow face and rusty crabs were in dense pockets in many rivers.  These crabs have very hard shells and, when cooked, often do not have preparatory shells forming.  These crabs have stopped shedding and, as a result, have shells covered with marine growths.  I have seen some barnacles and marine algae on many crabs the past three years.  Some comments from crabbers have mentioned that while cleaning and picking these crabs, they are hard packed or loaded with meat, signs that these crabs are extremely hard shelled, similar to lobster biology and have not shed in quite some time.

Lobsters, for example, may shed infrequently and as they age even five years or more between sheddings.  Before they shed, they have extremely hard (old) shells and show similar algal growth and barnacles, sometimes even blue mussels grow on them. With the blue crabs, I have seen similar characteristics for softshell new shell lobsters (paper shells) and those that have not shed recently called “hardshells.”  A new shell lobster is filled with 18% to 20% water that will “fill in” overtime as the lobster grows to fill out its shell. Cooking and cleaning new shell lobsters often results in the claws breaking and tail sections cracking easily. Hard shell lobsters, however, often require a hammer to crack claws and a mallet to break open the tails.

I see the same thing happening with the blue crabs. These crabs show little evidence that they have shed recently. And we may need to push lifespans to more than five years perhaps now up to 10 years. These crabs may have set in 2010 during huge megalop sets along the shore then (See Report #8, July 11, 2011, The Blue Crab ForumTM, Northeast Crabbing Resources Thread).

Three much cooler springs have possibly shortened the shed season so that the remaining blue crabs shed less frequently and now have very hard shells.  There were a few “white bellies” but only at the end of September. I have suggested in previous newsletters that these blue crabs are living longer; we may have crabs surviving longer even back to 2010. In the literature, warm cycle climates 2 to 3 years but in cooler climate cycles 3 to 5 years is the expected life expectancy.  Our weather (climate) has cooled from the 1990s.  This April I was writing the season outlook while it was snowing, but in 2012 blue crabbers had a headstart on the blue crab season here and were catching large crabs (before the official season opened on May 1st) at Lost Lake Guilford, Connecticut.  That same year, I had reports of large blue crabs at the Essex town dock on April 17th (See Megalops report posted on The Blue Crab ForumTM, dated April 23, 2012, Megalops Report #2 posted on Northeast Crabbing Resources, April 24, 2012).  By May 2012, heavy blue crab catches were well underway.  This year, record cold temperatures and heavy ice in the spring delayed catches here until mid-June, 60 days later than the year 2012 and blue crab megalops reported in 2011 occurred in July, not October.  However, nickel-size blue crabs (this year’s megalops) arrived the first week of October in New Haven Harbor and were reported on September 30th by several blue crabbers, including Olivia Regan and Mia Morr, Sound School students/members of the Marine Resources Club organized by George Baldwin, who brought me nickel-size blue crabs seined at the end of Howard Avenue on October 4th.

Though the small crabs were a good sign, any crabs not deep in the marshes most likely will not survive a long cold winter. These small crabs hold insufficient food reserves for 150 days without feeding (about 47oF); these crabs need to be nickel-size in July, not October, so they can reach 3 to 4 inches in one shed year to survive here.  I was hopeful that blue crabbing would increase the first two weeks of October and my catch reports of October 7th, 8th and 9th in 2017 are examples of the crabs massing and leaving fresher water for saltwater “in waves,” but that never happened to my knowledge this year.  A series of “Hudson Bay Lows” cut across New York State with strong winds, which made fishing difficult for several weeks.  This fall was not like last year with numerous storms and heavy rains.  Last fall, people were still swimming in November.

I appreciate all the reports this year from blue crabbers.  All catch and habitat observations are important as we learn more about blue crab ecology in Long Island Sound.

See you at the docks.  I respond to all emails at [email protected].

Blue Chip-

Habitat Refugia – “The Good Spots”

When The Search For Megalops newsletter first started my conversations with crabbers were very different.  It did not matter where you crabbed; blue crabs were everywhere.  A veteran bluecrabber, after the winter of 2014–2015, said “It was different now, it mattered where to crab.”  He further remarked "Now you have to find the crabs, they will not find you." We were talking about the very cold spring and a very late showing of any blue crabs in Clinton Harbor, Connecticut. He knew that in the 1960s certain areas held the last blue crabs in “pockets.”  The blue crab had retreated then into deep holes - warmer and with a longer habitat clock (i.e., growing season) than shallow areas that got cold quicker and invariably have less blue crabs. We also had a period of population/habitat expansion and blue crabs expanded into greater habitat coverage. The shallows had crabbers making larger catches because the blue crab populations had also grown, so had their suitable habitat. Similar species can undergo habitat expansion and contraction, and in times of habitat constriction, we can influence populations. When our waters warmed here in the 1900s, codfish moved north (They appeared in Greenland in 1912, Rachel Carson, The Sea Around Us, 1954) as New England fishers were accused of overfishing. The public saw a decline in cod and a new device called a trawl net was then blamed. The Oysterman and Fisherman, a trade magazine, then carried this news in 1915. 

From –

The Oysterman and Fisherman (pg. 15)
March 11, 1915, Vol. XII, Friday Morning, #16

Boston, Massachusetts – “ The report to Congress of Commissioner Smith of the Bureau of Fisheries on trawl fishing in the Atlantic is considered a rebuke to the Gloucester fishermen who claimed that trawling depleted the sea of fish. The report finds this not to be the case and while proposing that trawling be prohibited outside of territorial jurisdiction north of latitude 40 North except S George’s Bank, South channel and Nantucket shoals east of the Meridian of Son-Katy Head.”

While the merits of trawling would be discussed over the next century, by 1903, evidence from long liners’ trip logs themselves were already reported to be finding cod fish at greater depths and far from land. The codfish stocks were on the move to deeper cooler water much like us, faced with life ending heat. We move to cooler shores as well.  Long liners reported setting out miles of lines at greater depths to catch cod. Although trawling was increasing on coastal fishing grounds, the first trawler was built in 1909 and with the technology in place at the time, overfishing was not possible (my view). Instead the climate warming, which reached intensity in the 1890s, had driven cod (and halibut) from easy to fish shallow waters – far north to colder waters of the Davis Straits and even as far north to Greenland. (Trawl nets in time would be implicated in resource waste, known as discards and injuries in later times.)  We have Rachel Carson to thank for recording this movement of cod north to escape the intense heating that was occurring in New England (This Great Heat, 1880-1920), which was the second period of heat that vanquished the Niantic Bay Halibut fleet (See “Climate Change Habitat Stability, A Case History for the Connecticut Halibut Fleet 1848-1881” posted on The Blue Crab ForumTM on August 20, 2015).

From Rachel Carson’s The Sea Around Us (1954) in a section titled “The Global Thermostat” is found:

“When the cod first appeared at Angmayssalik in Greenland in 1912, it was a new and strange fish to the Eskimos and Danes. Within their memory it had never before appeared on the east coast of the Island. But they began to catch it and by the 1930s it supported so substantial a fishery in the area that the natives had become dependent upon it for food.”

This brings up the area of habitat contraction and expansion and the habitat conditions that change with climate cycles. This is most noticeable with species with short lifespans, such as the bay scallops and blue crabs, both species of the extreme shallows and therefore subject to show the first habitat and population change before other species. For codfish and halibut, it is the return of colder water in the 1950s that influenced their return to the fishing grounds of New England, but much of that had to do with forage - colder water increased the supply of sand eels, sets of shellfish and lobsters from an 1898 lobster dieoff, a primary diet item for codfish. Codfish returned to the banks because cold water forage had also returned as well from warm waters of the 1910s.

The problem with habitat expansion and constriction is that it is species specific, and often the subject our directed fisheries. When a species declines, it is easy to blame fishers (although in many instances fishing effort was too high). Declines are noticeable and reported (catch statistics). The bias is also noticeable; usually declines are blamed on pollution or overfishing, but increases rarely so? (There is one instance in Connecticut fisheries records when Alewife catches soared here in the late 1940s; fishery managers first blamed under fishing (lack of reports) as the reason. When looking back, it was just a cycle (NAO) largely determined by cooler water temperature.)  It was colder and increased spring rains most likely helped keep streams clear of leaves and sticks as US shad landings also peaked in 1958. The middle 1950s are not known for pollution policies.

The reasons behind the rises and declines of coastal species is the climate cycle related conditions over which we exert little control, we call the NAO. This example is clearly seen in the blue crab lobster reversal in Long Island sound between 1998 and 2012.  As lobsters died off and overfishing and pollution blamed (not to support that happening but to broaden fishery management perspectives – Tim Visel) at the same time, blue crab abundance soared, reaching incredible catch rates on the Connecticut River in 2010.  I estimated that Long Island Sound, based upon catch rates, held then 300 to 400 million blue crabs, beginning even to challenge Chesapeake Bay.  It was at this time, handliners averaged dozens of crabs per hour, but that has changed with the climate.  Unfortunately, we lack good steady commercial catch statistics to show this cycle of catches because exactly that abundance varies with climate (See Appendix #1). 

Megalops Set Reported on July 22nd was most likely the Asian Crab

On July 22nd two miles south of Charles Island, Milford at 12:00pm, Steve Joseph, Sound School aquaculture teacher, and Michele Fucci, a teacher at the New Haven Cooperative Arts and Humanities High School, reported them at Indian Neck, Branford with Betsy Driebeek, Sound School parent in Milford River, all reported seeing tens of thousands of crab megalops with pictures soon after (See The Search for Megalops, Special Report #2, posted on The Blue Crab ForumTM on Northeast Crabbing Resources thread, July 23, 2018) after reviewing the pictures (thank you, this “real time” hatch information is so rare in blue crab literature) and looking at the Howard Weiss Guide to Larval and Megalops Decapod Crustacean Identification Guide (See Connecticut Sea Grant “New Guide to Decapod Larvae Available August 4, 2017”), they were most likely the Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus. This crab, in some areas, is so common now that overturning a cobblestone can yield over a dozen small crabs. Pictures looked like these shown on page 32 of the Weiss Crustacean key showing the dorsal view.  Although small and observed frequently carrying a small sponge (egg mass), the reproductive capacity of this combined population is enormous.
It was great to obtain such real time fishery information, locations, pictures and tide conditions within minutes.  It was a huge crab hatch covering several dozen square miles. (A small megalops hatch for the blue crab appears to have happened the first week of August. It was reported by crabbers saying nickel-sized crabs along the coast by the end of September into the first week of October.)

To see a megalops set is striking; the water can be filled with millions of small crabs and the numbers at times seem overwhelming.  But as with many species, few will reach adult size. Competition for space and food carries a huge heavy natural mortality, even for the larger blue crab.

One of the habitat considerations here is how predator/prey relationships will adjust to this invasive crab species, which is great tautog/blackfish bait. I don't think we will need to wait that long as tautog, which seem to take advantage of cooler shallow reefs and will find abundant food, are now increasing in Connecticut. A series of colder springs and cooler waters are helping this cool water species make a comeback in our area.  While Black Sea Bass’ incredible reproduction capacity shows evidence of its year classes now stunting, and maturing sexually at smaller sizes. These are signs of a “forage eat out”- a possible forage famine for them – as these fish compete for too few fish meals. (This is today termed “a habitat bottleneck.”) The habitat clock (forage) is not in line with the biological clock; and when fish stunt, this is a sign of a failing habitat. 

With blue crabs, this might be seen as a shorter growing season and temperatures that do not allow frequent sheds. Many of the crabs I observed this summer have not shed in several years; they are extremely hard and “yellow face” or “rusty” brown crabs, perhaps that is how they stunt – they just do not shed? I did not see a widespread heavy blue crab set as in years past and if the colder winters continue, the chances of that happening also continue to diminish.

Blue Crab Megalops In July – 1960s – A Look Back To Tom’s Creek, Madison, CT – The Colder Future?

Going to Madison, CT in the 1960s and the beach always meant bringing a small mesh seine. Most of the time, we called it a dragnet, but a recreational version of a once much larger long-haul seine. This however it was a bait net and one that got daily use. The Webster Point section of Madison is a point, but more of a headland with surrounding marsh rather than water.  Webster Point has a tidal creek at the west end of Hammonasset Beach-Tom’s Creek-with two major beaches, one that cuts east into the park connecting with the remains of Dowd’s Creek, and one to the west going into the intersection of Signal Hill (Old Boston Post Road) and Liberty Street. Hear a small brook started upstream of Route 1, which a newer road now transects and the brook now travels below the road and is the freshwater source for the west branch of Tom’s Creek.

Visiting the Madison shore was a time to catch fish and the dragnet gave us “free” snapper blue bait, silversides preferred but killifish in a pinch – it didn’t matter, as long as we could catch either. Very quickly, however, we learned that the open beach produced more silversides and the creek more killifish. Some years were better than others, and we always had bycatch, unwanted species that attained little interest as bait, mud snails, small hermit crabs, sand shrimp and puffers, small soft fish that would puff up and with occasional calico “lady” crabs and pencil fish.  We would find, at times, massive amounts of peanut bunker – terrific bait – but this often made for slow snapper blue fishing (they had so much naturally), and in time, even this natural bait supply was offset by hungry snapper blues.

As fall turned leaves colors, snappers left, leaving the small winter flounder along the shore. Adult winter flounder was preferred of course as food, but only small ones went into Tom's Creek. In one small seine, I recall dozens and dozens of small winter flounder. Blue crabs arrived in late August and started catching them at high tide with baited lines.  When the tide was low, we would scape soft shells hiding under blades of sea lettuce. Shallow open waters were no protection from the winter ahead. Beginning in 1965, our summer visits to Madison turned year-round. The year 1965 brought a tough winter; it had a period that is now in the record books as the 48-hour gale, and after that, blue crabs were scarce until 1970.

We would net small blue crabs in July, but they were in the creek not the open shore yet nowhere near the megalops survey reports in 2010 and 2011, which often had dozens of small blue crabs. At this time, small winter flounder were almost nonexistent. These species had reversed in prevalence in the same habitat. We need to better understand these massive species reversals in shallow water (similar to Black Sea Bass for Tautog in our area).  Large numbers of Black Sea Bass appear to be stunted, achieving sexual maturity at shorter and shorter lengths.  These are signs that competition for food has increased for Black Sea Bass; it is also a sign that this population most likely will see decreases as it did follow a similar surge from 1900-1910.

A Look Back at Blue Crab Megalops
It is also Tom’s Creek where I learned about the impacts of pollution, the possible impact of insecticides to control mosquitoes that happened in 1972-1971. This was mentioned in the newsletter titled “Habitat for Blue Crab Fishermen-Pesticides and Blue Crabs Report #2, 2010” posted on The Blue Crab ForumTM, Northeast Crabbing Resources thread, July 24, 2012.

Tom's creek is at the westerly edge of Hammonasset State Park and its salt marsh just a few tens of feet from State park campers. At an early age when we crabbed, we followed instructions, “stay on the path” from my father who showed us close up what straying from the path meant. Each blade of grass held noseeums, two or three mosquitoes and often a greenhead fly. Touching on moving the grass blades released an army of blood sucking insects that soon made blue crabbing a less than pleasant experience.  However, Hammonasset State Park campers faced the reality that swarms of biting insects were “eating them alive” and the State fogged the marshes (termed “spraying” back then) and the numbers of biting insects dropped significantly. It was a couple of weeks later that my brother Raymond and I heard the first complaints from father “no blue crabs in Tom’s Creek.”  We could not believe it.  We passed Fence Creek about 2 miles to the west, a similar size creek everyday while skiff lobstering.  It had blue crabbers lining the banks at mid-tide (bridge), we entered Fence Creek for a closer look; it had a several blue crabbers.  We dropped a bait bag left over from lobstering (cut bunker), left it over oysters for a few minutes and pulled it up.  It must have had 10 small blue crabs on it.  Then we went to Tom’s Creek, high tide (no bridge) and did the same thing – no crabs, not even a green crab and no crabbers.  We went home with our report and got a resounding lecture about the use of insecticides close to marshes and blue crabs.  It was a lesson I would not forget on Cape Cod (See the report titled “Pesticides and Blue Crabs” on The Blue Crab ForumTM, posted on July 24, 2012 for a more detailed writeup).

Although we crabbed every summer, some years were good and some were not.  However, I never saw the number of small crabs observed between 2010 and 2012.  In this time, swarms of small crabs covered baits in June and July, not October to November.  In the few past years, small crabs have become the food of a huge increase in Black Sea Bass. And consumed in large amounts observed by late fall, Black Sea Bass fishers late into November (See Megalops Report #4 titled “Blue Crabs Setting Off Faulker’s Island,” posted on The Blue Crab ForumTM, Northeast Crabbing Resources, October 9, 2014).

In 2011, the numbers of small crabs were huge as wave after wave of megalops hit the Connecticut shore (See Megalops Report #10, posted July 20, 2011 on The Blue Crab ForumTM Northeast Crabbing thread-Northeast Crabbing Resources).  We do not have the eelgrass meadows (that in sufficient oxygen does provide good habitat services for the megalops stage) of southern states, but we do have immense clam and oyster populations in Western CT to New Haven Harbor.  It is this location that saw heavy sets of small crabs 2009-2011.  It is thought that oyster and clam shell provides a good habitat substitute and allowed millions of small crabs a place to molt into what we know looks like a blue crab.  But they need to “set” during the early summer and have favorable space and food before winter hibernation.  The past four years have been very different; blue crab sets have come later and in the deeper waters, in the years 2013 and 2014, were consumed by Black Sea Bass (See Megalops Special Report #3, June 1, 2016).

We may be seeing the beginning of the great reverse – a change of habitats that comes before a change in abundance of inshore fish and shellfish species predicted by John Hammond on Cape Cod thirty-six years ago.  As blue crabs and bay scallops appear opposite each other in New England, we need to watch both species – my view, Tim Visel.

Thanks again for all the blue crab reports this season.

Tim Visel

A Marine Resources Management Plan
For the State of Connecticut

Prepared by

Mark M. Blake, Marine Biologist
Marine Fisheries Program

Eric S. Smith, Assistant Director
Bureau of Fisheries
Marine Fisheries Program

July 1984

5.2.4 Recreational Blue Crabbing

Taking blue crabs for personal use is a fairly popular recreational fishing activity in Connecticut in years when blue crabs are abundant.  However, very little is known about the numbers of people involved or how many crabs are harvested because the activity in unregulated except for prohibitions on taking crabs between December 1st and April 30th, taking egg bearing females, and taking hard shell crabs less than 5 inches or soft shell crabs less than 3 1/2 inches measured from tip to tip of the shell spikes.  Popular blue crabbing areas include saltwater coves and the mouth of rivers, principally in the eastern two-thirds of the state.

Crabs are taken mostly by dip (or scoop) net, and by crab traps.  Such traps as specified by regulation must be manually operated, personally attended devices (Sec. 26-142a-8a (b).  The taking of blue crabs in lobster pots is prohibited.   

(1984 CT Regulations)

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« Reply #1 on: December 03, 2018, 02:12:41 PM »

good read


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